Violence & Criminalization: Key Data

Data — By on February 2, 2011 4:03 pm

PERPETRATION

The preponderance of the data cited in the perpetration discussion is from two reports produced by the Illinois Criminal Justice Authority.  Both reports can be found at the ICJIA website: www.icjia.state.il.us.  The Taskforce would like to thank Lindsay Bostwick of ICJIA who authored those reports for reviewing this paper and offering her helpful suggestions.  Any analysis offered in the background paper is solely the opinion of its author and not ICJIA.

According to a study conducted by the Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority (ICJIA) “In calendar year 2007, female youth under 17 years old in Illinois accounted for 22 percent of all youth arrests reported to the CCH system.  Thirty-three percent of all female arrests were for offenses against a person.  In comparison, 26 percent of male arrests were for offenses against a person” (Bostwick, 2009[1]).

Another study conducted by ICJIA found that “Girls in Illinois experienced a greater increase in rate of arrests than boys from 2002 to 2007.  During this period, girls’ arrests were more likely than boys’ to be for status and person offenses, and noncompliance with public officials, such as contempt of court.  Girls’ arrests were more likely to be for misdemeanor offenses than boys’” (Bostwick & Ashley 2009)[2].

Furthermore, ICJIA studies have found that “Females accounted for 2,445 (17 percent) of 14,154 admissions of 10 to 16 years olds to secure detention statewide in calendar year 2007.  Forty-eight (48) percent of female detention admissions were for offenses against a person, compared to 30 percent of male’s admissions” (Bostwick, 2009).

“In fiscal year 2007, females accounted for 11 percent of all commitments of youth ages 13 to 16 years old to IDOC or 145 of 1,362 commitments.  Furthermore, females accounted for 10 percent of 13 to 16 years olds committed for new adjudications by the court” (Bostwick, 2009).

According to ICJIA, “Fifty-two percent of females’ commitments to IDOC youth facilities of 13 to 16 year olds were for offenses against a person and 35 percent were for property offenses.  In comparison, 39 percent of males’ commitments were for offenses against a person and 43 percent were for property offenses” (Bostwick, 2009).

A one-day snapshot on July 6 2009 found that there were 98 girls and young women committed in Illinois Department of Juvenile Justice facilities.  This is 8% of the total number of youth confined in DJJ facilities[3].

Facility Property Offenses Drug Related Offenses Crimes against People Weapon Charges
Pere Marquette 14 0 7 0
Warrenville 32 4 41 0
TOTAL 46   46% 4% 48  48% 0

** Note: Youth have multiple committing offenses.  In gathering this data, the most serious committing offense, or in case of a tie, a crime against a person was used.

Girls from minority populations are over-represented in the Illinois juvenile justice system.

During 2005, the state of Illinois paid an average of $70,827 per year to incarcerate each juvenile (IDOC 2005). As of 2010, it is now estimated that it costs nearly $85,000 per year to incarcerate a juvenile in Illinois.

The Health Medicine Policy Research Group reported in April 2008 that: “Census figures provided by the CCJTDC [Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center] illustrate that on any given day, approximately 55 girls (or 11 percent of the total population) reside at the CCJTDC. They are housed in 3 distinct units, each having 22 beds….  [Data demonstrate] that girls are being detained at CCJTDC (or local county-run) detention facilities in increasing numbers from 2005 to 2006 with an estimated increase again in 2007.[4]

About 75% of young women in the Cook County Temporary Juvenile Detention Center had a psychiatric disorder (Abram, et al., 2004).

Key Points:

According to ICJIA studies, “Girls were underrepresented at all stages of the Illinois juvenile justice system.  However, girls’ system involvement was statistically more likely than boys’ to be for running away, retail theft, disorderly conduct, being a minor requiring authoritative intervention, contempt of court, and battery.  Girls’ juvenile justice system involvement was statistically more likely to be for misdemeanor and petty offenses than boys’, except for misdemeanor status and noncompliance offense categories” (Bostwick & Ashley 2009).

[1] Bostwick, L. (2009). Juvenile Justice System and Risk Factor Data: 2007 Annual report. Chicago, IL: Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority.

[2] Bostwick, Lindsay & Ashley, Jessica. 2009. Examining at-risk and delinquent girls in Illinois. Chicago, IL: Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority.

[3] This information was received from DJJ on 7/6/09 at a gathering organized by the juvenile re-entry collaborative.

[4] Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority. (2003-2007). [Juvenile Monitoring Information System (JMIS)]. (2003-2006). Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center. Unpublished raw data as cited in Cummings and McAlpine, 2008.

SEXUAL VICTIMIZATION OF ADJUDICATED GIRLS IN ILLINOIS JUVENILE FACILITIES

According to a new study released by the Justice Department on January 7th 2010, 11.4 percent of adjudicated female youth at Warrenville  reported experiencing one or more incidents of sexual victimization[1] by another youth or facility staff in the past 12 months or since admission, if less than 12 months.

6.8% of adjudicated female youth at Warrenville reported one or more incidents of sexual victimization by facility staff; while 11.4 percent reported one or more incidents with another youth.

Table 1. Percent of Illinois adjudicated female youth reporting sexual victimization, by facility, National Survey of Youth in Custody, 2008-09

Facility name Number of respondents[2] Response rate Percent of youth reporting sexual victimization
Percent 95% confidence interval
Lower bound Upper bound
Illinois Youth Ctr. Warrenville[3] 28 51.6 11.4 4.8 24.7

Table 2. Percent of Illinois youth reporting sexual victimization by another youth, by type of incident and facility, National Survey of Youth in Custody, 2008-2009

Facility name Percent of Illinois youth reporting victimization by another youth
All youth-on-youth Nonconsensual sexual acts
Weighted percent 95% confidence interval Weighted percent 95% confidence interval
Lower bound Upper bound Lower bound Upper bound
Illinois Youth Ctr. Warrenville[4] 11.4 4.8 24.7 6.8 2.3 18.2

Table 3. Percent of Illinois youth reporting staff sexual misconduct, by type of incident and facility, National Survey of Youth in Custody, 2008-2009

Facility name Percent of Illinois female youth reporting staff sexual misconduct
All staff sexual misconduct Sexual acts excluding touching
Weighted percent 95% confidence interval Weighted percent 95% confidence interval
Lower bound Upper bound Lower bound Upper bound
Illinois Youth Ctr. Warrenville[5] 6.8 2.3 18.3 2.2 0.6 8.4

Table 4. Percent of Illinois youth reporting staff sexual misconduct, by use of force and facility, National Survey of Youth in Custody, 2008-2009

Facility name Percent of Illinois youth reporting staff sexual misconduct excluding touching[6]
Force reported No report of force
Weighted percent 95% confidence interval Weighted percent 95% confidence interval
Lower bound Upper bound Lower bound Upper bound
Illinois Youth Ctr. Warrenville[7] 2.2 0.6 8.4 0.0 0.0 8.0


[1] Beck, Allen J., Harrison, Paige M., and Paul Guerino. (January 2010). Sexual Victimization in Juvenile Facilities Reported by Youth, 2008-09. Bureau of Justice Statistics. NCJ 228416.  (retrieved on 1/7/10). Sexual victimization is defined as any unwanted sexual activity between youth and all sexual activity between youth and staff.[2] Sexual victimization survey – portion of the National Survey of Youth in Custody (2008-2009)

[3] Facility houses females only

[4] Facility houses females only

[5] Facility houses females only

[6] Weighted percent of youth reporting one or more incidents of sexual victimization involving facility staff in the past 12 months or since admission to the facility, if less than 12 months.

[7] Facility houses females only